Stanley Fischer To Become Next Federal Reserve Vice Chairman

December 12, 2013

Stanley Fischer, the former Bank of Israel governor and International Monetary Fund (IMF) official, is alleged to be the successor of Janet Yellen as vice chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve.

STANLEY FISCHER

As a professor of economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he taught Fed Chairman Ben S. Bernanke, whose term ends in January 2014, and European Central Bank chief Mario Draghi.

Washington Post columnist Neil Irwin, and author of The Alchemists: Three Central Bankers and a World on Fire, explains why Stanley Fischer is the most qualified candidate for the job.

“A crisis-management veteran. Fischer has faced trial by fire, most dramatically as the deputy managing director at the IMF from 1994 to 2001. He was on the front lines dealing with of a series of emerging market crises, including in Mexico, East Asia and Russia.

In other words, if there were to be a crisis in one or more of the emerging powers like China, India or Brazil, it would be the sort of thing that Fischer has spent his career preparing for. That is doubly important right now, as money has been gushing out of emerging economies in the past few months, driving their currencies down and their borrowing costs up.”

Read full story.

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Guest Editorial: The Currency War

February 21, 2011

What’s Behind the Currency War?

By Professor Dr. Antony P. Mueller

In September 2010, a short time before the international financial summit of the Group of Twenty (G20) took place in South Korea, Brazilian finance minister Guido Mantega declared that the world is experiencing a “currency war” where “devaluing currencies artificially is a global strategy.”

Dr. Antony P. Mueller is a professor of economics at the graduate business school of the University of Caxias-do-Sul (UCS) in Brazil. He is an adjunct scholar of the Ludwig von Mises Institute and president and founder of The Continental Economics Institute.

Dr. Antony P. Mueller is a professor of economics at the graduate business school of the University of Caxias-do-Sul (UCS) in Brazil. He is an adjunct scholar of the Ludwig von Mises Institute and president and founder of The Continental Economics Institute.

By announcing the outbreak of a “currency war,” Mantega wanted to draw attention to the problems caused by the ongoing exchange-rate manipulations that governments put in place in order to gain economic advantages. In this sense, “currency war” denotes the conflict among nations that arises from the deliberate manipulation of the exchange rate in order to gain international competitiveness by way of currency devaluation.

Competitive Devaluation

Calling competitive devaluation a “war” may seem like a gross exaggeration. Yet in terms of its potential of destruction, the current global financial conflict may well rank at a level similar to that of a real war.

In a wider historical perspective, the current currency war is the latest conflict in a series of acute crises of the modern international monetary system. In a world of national monetary regimes based on fiat money without physical anchors, domestic monetary instability automatically transforms into exchange-rate instability. As before, the current crisis of the international economic order is mainly the result of monetary fragilities coming from the unsound national monetary systems and reckless domestic monetary and fiscal policies.

The immediate cause of the currency war entering an acute stage is the policy of massive quantitative easing practiced by the US central bank. Whatever the original intention of this policy may have been, the consequences of the Fed’s measures include monetary expansion, low interest rates, and a weaker US dollar. With dollar interest rates approaching the “zero bound,” the United States is joining Japan in the effort to stimulate a sluggish economy with massive monetary impulses.

Until recently, the currency war was contained as a kind of financial cold war. The conflict entered its hot phase as a result of the expansive monetary policies that were put in place in the wake of the financial-market crisis that began in 2007. In defiance of the fact that the financial crisis itself was the result of the extremely expansive monetary policies in the years before, many central banks have now accelerated monetary expansion in the vain attempt to cure the disease with the same measures that had caused it in the first place.

Easy Money and International Financial Flows

What has emerged in the global financial arena over the past couple of years is the interplay among easy money, low interest rates, international trade imbalances, financial flows, and exchange-rate manipulations. The failure of attempts to cure overindebtedness with more debt, and to stimulate weak economies by giving them interest rates as low as possible, provokes a repetitive pattern of bubble and crash where each phase ends in a higher level of government debt.

A global search for higher yields has been going on not unlike what happened in the late 1960s and 1970s, when the United States inflated and the countries that had linked their exchange rates to the US dollar suffered from imported inflation. Nowadays, the formal dollar-based fixed-exchange-rate system no longer exists. It has been replaced by a system that sometimes is called “Bretton Woods II”: a series of countries, particularly in Asia this time, have pegged their exchange rates (albeit without a formal agreement) to the US dollar.

If a country wants to slow down the appreciation of its exchange rate that comes as a consequence of the financial inflows from abroad, it must intervene in the foreign-exchange markets and monetize at least a part of the foreign exchange. This way, the monetary authorities will automatically increase the domestic money stock. Additionally, under this system relatively poor countries feel forced not only to buy the debt issued by the relatively wealthy countries like the United States but also to buy these bonds at their current extremely low yields.

Under current conditions, the monetary expansion gets globalized and invades even those countries that wish to practice restrictive monetary policy. Relatively high levels of the interest rate improve the restrictive currency’s attractiveness. Thus, more and more monetary expansion happens on a global scale, which in turn provides the fuel for the next great wave of international financial flows.

The weaker countries, which compete with each other on the basis of low prices, are getting pushed to the side; it was just a matter of time until more and more governments would begin to intervene in the foreign-exchange markets by buying up foreign currencies in order to try to prevent their exchange rates from appreciating too much, too fast.

Yet using the exchange rate as a tool in order to gain economic advantage or avert damage for the domestic economy is inherently at variance with a sound global monetary order, because one country’s devaluation automatically implies the revaluation of another country’s currency and thus the advantage that one tries to obtain will be achieved by putting a burden on other countries.

Escalation

By recycling the monetary equivalent of the trade surplus into the financial markets around the globe, monetary authorities in surplus countries form a symbiosis with trade-deficit countries in fabricating a worldwide monetary expansion of extreme proportions.

The paradoxical, or rather perverse, features of the current state of affairs were highlighted a short time ago when in January 2011 the monetary authorities of Turkey decided to lower the policy interest rates so as to make the inflow of foreign funds less attractive, despite a booming Turkish economy that shows plenty characteristics of a bubble.

Exchange-rate policies produce the usual spiral of interventionism: the de facto consequences tend to diverge from the original intentions, prompting further rounds of doomed interventions. This interventionist escalation is not only limited to an incessant repetition of the same failed policies, but the errors committed in one policy area also affect other parts of the economy. Thus, it is only a matter of time until errors of monetary policy lead to fiscal fiascos, and exchange-rate interventions lead to trade conflicts.

At first sight, exchange-rate intervention may appear tolerable as the legitimate pursuit of national self-interest. But exchange-rate policies are intrinsically matters that tend to stir transnational controversies. When a country’s exchange rate policy collides with the interests of the trading partners, the tit-for-tat of mutual retaliation automatically tends to lead to an escalation of the conflict. Once the process of competitive devaluation has started, a devaluation by one country invites other countries to devaluate their exchange rates as well. As a consequence, the international monetary order will eventually disintegrate, and sooner or later the conflict will go beyond currency issues and affect a wide spectrum of economic and political relations.

Therefore, because of the unsound monetary system, a peaceful international political system also is constantly at risk. Monetary conflicts provoke political confrontations. Besides the immediate costs of exchange-rate conflicts that come from the damage to international trade and investment, and thereby to the international division of labor, harm will also be done to confidence and trust in the international political arena.

The dispute about exchange rates is the consequence of contradictory tensions that are innate to the modern monetary system. In this respect the currency war is an expression of the defects that characterize an unsound and destructive financial system. The outbreak of the currency war is a symptom of a deeply flawed international monetary order.

Brazil

When Brazil’s finance minister repeated his warnings in January 2011 and said that “the currency war is turning into a trade war,” Mantega sent a signal to the world that the escalation of the trade war had started. Because of the massive inflow of money from abroad, the Brazilian currency had sharply appreciated and the Brazilian economy was losing competitiveness.

In order to reduce the impact on is domestic economy, Brazil had been intervening in the foreign-exchange markets, diminishing the degree of currency appreciation. In doing so, the monetary authorities had to buy foreign currencies, mainly US dollars, in exchange for its domestic money.

By pursuing such a policy over the past couple of years, Brazil has increased its foreign-exchange reserves from around 50 billion to 300 billion US dollars. Yet even despite these foreign-exchange interventions, the Brazilian currency appreciated drastically against the US dollar and other currencies.

By various estimates, Brazilian foreign trade suffers from an exchange-rate overvaluation of around 40 percent. As a consequence, Brazil’s current account balance, which was still at surplus in 2007, has plunged into a deficit of 47.5 billion US dollars in 2010. At the same time when an artificial boom is taking place as the result of massive monetary expansion, the Brazilian economy suffers from creeping deindustrialization.

Part of the explosion of Brazil’s current-account deficit can be explained by weak demand from its trading partners, which have plunged into a prolonged recession. Yet beyond this circumstance, there has been another causal chain at work: the inflow of funds from abroad that boosts the exchange rate provides the grounds for an exorbitant increase of the country’s monetary base.

The combination of ample liquidity at home, weak demand from some trading partners abroad, and a strong exchange-rate appreciation provides the basis for an extreme import expansion that vastly exceeds exports. Unlike a country such as Germany, for example, whose industry is pretty resilient against currency appreciation, Brazil resembles in this respect the countries of the Southern periphery of the eurozone in its incapacity to cope effectively with an overvalued currency.

When, in January 2011, a new government took power in Brazil, the newly-elected president, Dilma Rousseff, declared in her inauguration speech that she will protect Brazil “from unfair competition and from the indiscriminate flow of speculative capital.” Guido Mantega, the former and new Brazilian finance minister, did not hesitate to join in when he asserted that the government has an “infinite” number of interventionist tools at its disposal with which to protect national interests. Mantega said that the government is ready to use taxation and trade measures in order to stop the deterioration of Brazil’s trade balance.

China

The countries that form the favored group that gets targeted by international financial flows in search of higher yields compete among themselves in order to prevent their currencies from appreciating too much, and as a group these countries compete against China in their efforts to maintain a competitive exchange rate.

China’s position forms part of a long causal chain, which includes low interest rates and monetary expansion in the United States, that fuels higher import demand. Given that China drastically devalued its exchange rate as early as in the 1980s, this country was at the forefront of gaining advantage of America’s import surge; China grabbed the golden opportunity to turn itself into the major exporter to the United States.

In order to maintain its currency at its undervalued level, the Chinese monetary authorities must buy up the excess of foreign exchange that accumulates from its trade surplus, preferably by buying US treasury notes and bonds. In this way, China became America’s main creditor. Over the past decade, China increased its foreign exchange position from a meager $165 billion in 2000 to an amount that was approaching $3 trillion at the end of 2010.

From the 1980s up to the early 1990s, China devalued its currency from less than 2 Yuan to the US dollar to an exchange rate of 9 Yuan against the US dollar. And despite its huge trade surpluses, China has only slightly revalued the Yuan ever since, establishing the current exchange rate at 6.56 Yuan per US dollar.

Over the past decade, China has become the major financier of the US budget deficit. Together with other monies flowing in from abroad, the US government was relieved from the need to cut spending. The inflow of foreign capital also allowed the US government to pay lower interest rates for its debt than it would have if only domestic supply of savings were available. Foreign imports put pressure on the price level, and the US central bank could continue monetary expansion without an immediate effect on the price-inflation rate.

If China wants to hold its competitive position through an undervalued currency, the Chinese monetary authorities must continue their policy of intervention in the foreign-exchange markets. As a consequence of buying dollars from its exporters, the domestic money supply in China continues to rise, throwing additional fuel on a domestic boom that is already in full swing.

Even more so than their Brazilian counterparts, China’s political-decision makers have failed to exert moderation or restraint when it comes to interventionist measures. As long as China’s leadership presumes that it gains from exchange-rate manipulation, its currency interventions will go on.

Global Financial Fragilities

Since the abandonment of the gold standard, the global financial system has been in disarray. All the international monetary arrangements that have been established since then have ended in crisis and finally collapsed. For almost a hundred years now, one interventionist scheme has been established and then soon fallen to pieces.

When the monetary and fiscal decision makers in the United States and Europe discarded all restraints against intervention in the wake of the financial market crisis, socialist and interventionist governments around the globe felt vindicated. They had long been convinced that only through state control could financial stability be obtained. Due to the policies adopted by Western countries in their futile attempt to overcome the financial-market crisis, the leaders of the so-called emerging economies have become even more unscrupulous interventionists.

Political leaders around the globe have shed the little that was left of support for free markets and set the controls for a way back on the road to serfdom. It is mainly due to ignorance that the modern monetary system gets labelled as a laissez-faire or free market system. In fact not only the basic “commodity” of this scheme, i.e., fiat money, but also its price and quantity are largely determined by political institutions such as central banks.

It is more than absurd when, in the face of crises and conflicts, more government intervention gets called upon: it was state intervention in the first place that laid the groundwork for the trouble to appear.

So-called “speculative” international capital flows already happened decades ago. What has changed since then is the amount of hot money and the speed with which it floats around the world. It would be wrong to describe these financial movements as an expression of free markets. The fact, for instance, that in 2010 daily transactions on the international currency market have reached a volume of four trillion US dollars is the result of unhampered fiat-money expansion and massive state intervention in the foreign-exchange markets.

The increase in the global money supply that has been going on for many years finds its complement in a global asset boom. The inflation of money drives up the price of precious metals, natural resources, and food. Once more, the world experiences a period of fake prosperity not much different from the real-estate bubble, and many other episodes, that led to previous financial crises.

Conclusion

The political endeavours to gain competitive advantages through exchange-rate devaluation sows mistrust among nations; and the ensuing regime uncertainties frustrate the business community. Over time the conflict over exchange rates tends to destroy the global division of labor.

Once again, the international monetary system is on the brink of a breakdown. As in the past, the main reason behind the current conflict is extreme monetary expansion. Unsound monetary systems produce turmoil not just at home but also in the international arena. Excessive monetary expansion, which is the cause of domestic malinvestment, is also the root of economic distortions at a global level.

Without a fundamental change of the monetary system itself, without a return to sound money, the international monetary system will remain in a state of permanent fragility — ever oscillating between the abyss of deflationary depression and the fake escape of hyperinflation. This is the fate of the world when nations implement fiat monetary systems and put them under political authority.

© 2011, Dr. Antony P. Mueller.


Germany’s Recession

May 15, 2009

The Financial Times reports Germany’s economy shrank at a record pace during the first three months of 2008, shrinking at a faster rate than analysts had predicted and confirming that Germany is among the European countries hardest hit by the crisis.

The New York Times reports the economy of the eurozone as a whole shrank 2.5 percent during the same period. 


Theory of Integrated Macroeconomics

May 11, 2009

Prof. Solomon Budnik has developed his project of the Internet Stock Exchange for global securities settlements. This project is based on Prof. Budnik’ project and bylaws of the Alternative Int. SE solicited by the Israeli Finance Ministry.

By Professor Solomon Budnik

Professor of Comparative Law, currently chairman of the Aerospace company UTG-PRI LTD. – Tel Aviv, Israel.

Subtitle: Crisis of Unified Economic Systems and Uniform Currency. Macroeconomic Geometry.

ABSTRACT

IN RE: New advances in open economy modeling

With regard to economic modeling, it should be noted that we deal now with the expanding economic universe with ever changing space-time continuum due to ever expanding world population and consumer market. No artificial economic model could adjust to such  circumstances or fit various rigid and incompatible economic systems, particularly not the Nobel Prize in Economics gained behavioral, equilibrium, and game models.

In re:   human behavior and free market  are unpredictable, being unstable, and exercise a cumulative effect upon given economy due to mass public and monetary upheavals. For example, the economy of ill-conceived socio-communist and socialist states was and is based on social rules instead of the rule of capital, and couldn’t therefore be properly planned and predicted, as proven by history.

Astoundingly, the  economic system in USA, etc. is not capitalistic but Capitolistic, judging by politically induced state interference into free market affairs, with catastrophic results remedied by same state with trillions of dollars of misappropriated taxpayers’ money, forcing thereby future generations to slave themselves to repay that national multitrillion dollar debt to totalitarian and human rights violating China and totalitarian, racist and terrorist Arab states controlling the US State Dept. with oil dollars.

The equilibrium model is also wrong, since it contradicts the common sense, physics and geometry, for a physical or economic system doesn’t function or operate in a vacuum of economic space, and  an equilibrium can only be reached  by two corresponding systems positioned in the same economic plane, which is impossible. It means that no monetary system can reach a state of equilibrium in ever changing environment and monetary parameters. In fact, a model or a system in equilibrium is a dead, non-functional body, as is Zimbabwean Central Bank which has abolished its worthless national currency.

The  economic game model is wrong as well, since a game needs at least two players, with the end result of a  winner and a looser, or means a single player that plays with a third-party invented program (Russian and Israeli central banks that used the American FED’s model with devastating results), and usually a game theory is applied post-factum to a past event, as the Israeli economic game theorist applied his game paper to a so-called Oslo Accord and its step-by-step Israeli concessions  never matched by the opposing PA,  the Arab terror outcome of which the Israeli people and economy suffer under since 1993.

In all such circumstances, the society and the free market rebel and correct themselves via revolutions and financial downfalls, with trillions of dollars lost. Accordingly, as the Church had separated itself from the state and became a quasi financial institution above the state, the free market economy should function as a non plus ultra financial institution ruled and protected by integrated macroeconomics with a self-correcting mechanism of a three-tier stock exchange system developed by me.

Accordingly, I suggest that in order to prevent future economic depressions and collapses, the common  macroeconomics should be replaced by integrated macroeconomics (as formulated by me) separated from the monetary and fiscal economics induced and controlled by the state via central bank and the treasury which are self-conflicting bodies without taxpayers’ control.

The reason for such a change is that the capital market should be free from the state control in both

THESIS

Preamble: this paper has been composed due to the fact that all previous economic theories and models have failed in the modern turbulent economic circumstances of the intertwined, dependable and unstable global markets and economic powerhouses, with unpredictable fluctuations of domestic and foreign capital.

In re: let’s reminiscent briefly on the history of the past empires, state unions and confederations that had led to the rise and fall of the British Empire (despite the gold standard of the Pound Sterling which was the primary reserve currency for much of the world in the 18th and 19th centuries, but perpetual account and fiscal deficits, financed by cheap credit and unsustainable monetary and fiscal policies used to finance wars and colonial ambitions eventually led to the pound sinking (read current U.S. economic situation), Spanish and Dutch empires, whose economics were based on colonial assets, and the fall of the Austrian-Hungarian entity. The USA had united independent states which then exist on cash injections of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve via dollar printing and the issue of now unsellable state bonds, e.g., the state of California, which has now a budget deficit of $42B, while the overall national debt per American household is now $35.000, to rise to $75.000 due to President Obama’s financial policy. Economic crisis in America happened a number of times, albeit dollar was the world reserve currency guaranteed by gold.

In post World-War II, the US dollar took over the sterling’s dominant position and became the world’s newest reserve currency. The Bretton Woods Accord, the first major economic transformation toward the end of World War II, established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and a way to value the various currencies of the world relative to each other. All foreign currencies would trade in relationship to the US Dollar and only the US dollar (as the reserve currency) would be tied to a gold standard (meaning the value of dollars circulating must be backed by gold reserves). The Roosevelt dollar was a schizoid, two-tier dollar, whose purchasing power at home did not match its gold parity abroad. At home, it was a fiat monetary unit, not convertible to gold; abroad, it was convertible to gold at $35 per ounce.

Americans of that era learned rather quickly that the maintenance of wealth in tangible form was preferable to paper wealth, so as bank runs became more pronounced, they rushed into and hoarded gold, since a growing distrust of banks meant an equal distrust of paper money.

Executive Order 6102 of April, 1933 and the United States Gold Reserve Act of January, 1934 changed all that. The 1934 Act raised the official price of gold to 35$ per ounce from the 20.67$ paid to Americans who, under the threat of a 10,000$ fine and/or 10 years imprisonment, had been forced to turn in their gold a few months earlier.

The gold standard caused major problems in the 1960’s when France (under the London Gold Pool) called America’s bluff and demanded gold for payment of debt, rather than US dollars (they understood that USA were printing more money, to finance the Vietnam conflict and fund new social programs, than we had available in gold reserves).

Due to the rapid loss of US gold reserves, President Nixon had no choice but to abolish the Bretton Woods accord in August of 1971 and he took the US dollar off the gold standard (it was $35 per ounce then).

Ruble of the Imperial Russia had also been guaranteed by gold, but that colonial and agrarian country, notwithstanding its industrial output of the 1913, existed due to wars and foreign loans. The crash of that economically poor, on bayonets unified empire was inevitable, as well as the crash of the following Soviet empire due to its domestic and international aggression and annexation, failed Communist “planed” economy, fifteen fictitious republics on Moscow’s payroll,  one-side introduced fake ruble-dollar parity, purchases of grain abroad for dollars, arms race and non-repaid foreign loans, paid-off by Russia only recently.

And nothing have come up of  the idea of the  Belarus-Russia economic union and  unified currency, and  Belarus now lobbies the EU.

With regard to Euro, it had lost  30% of its value at the issue, and that issue and the annulment of the former European currencies has cost tens billions of dollars. The economy of the leading EU states had thereby been undermined due to the incompatibility of the different economic systems and internal state protectionism of the EU members. The economy of minor states had been damaged due to sharp discrepancies  between the low wages and 2-3 times higher prices due to joining the EU where wages are 10-20 times higher. Example: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Baltic States which are virtually bankrupt.

Euro keeps its mark due to free circulation of the paper money in a monetary spread now affecting the UK and Switzerland, but  Euro can fall to a critical point due to reduced  consumption and production,  credit crunch and the strengthening dollar.

EU Central Bank and the Bank of Israel (BOI) had followed suit by emulating FED’s actions applicable in USA only, i.e., by zeroing all interest earning saving deposits and to buying-in own state bonds. In  Israel, the American-led BOI had unreasonably devalued the strong shekel by 30% in favor of  weak dollar and Euro due to threats of total strike and extortion  by the leftist subversive Israeli Labor Union (so-called New Histadrut), albeit the Israeli import is 3-4 times larger then export, and BOI had bought-in the Israeli state bonds, albeit there was no huge foreign debt as in USA, had depleted the Treasury of its large  tax income of 15% on now non-existing shekel saving deposits of the bank customers, had reduced the interest rate to 0.5% thus depriving the bank clients and the banks of their earnings, and made thereby poorer  the consumers. Said erroneous and highly damaging actions had deflated the Israeli economy with no official inflation, caused mass unemployment, closed companies and factories, and caused the 20%-50% rise in travel expenses, food, gas and RE prices due to actual inflation concealed by the BOI, since  its actions are in contradiction to all written and unwritten free market rules, with negative results for Israeli economy, for the reduced money supply wasn’t compensated by a $750B stimulus  package and capital infusion in banks and companies, as in USA.

In Russia, on the contrary, its Central Bank had opted for inflation vs. deflation, and had allowed large interest rates at falling consumer and RE prices, with now value appreciating ruble, thus saving the consumer market, its money circulation and earnings on saving deposits.

Paradox but fact: dollar had appreciated against foreign currencies despite the collapse  of the U.S. economy, since all countries buy up dollars for currency reserves and support of their U.S. market dependent economies.

Hence, it is obvious in my opinion that the U.S. and EU economies and monetary expansions were based quasi on the Einstein’s formula Е = мс2, i.e. energy of the economy is equal to the money mass  multiplied by the speed of its circulation in the quadrature of the given monetary territory. But in case of  the  reduced  circulation of money, as occurs now everywhere, the economy of a state shrinks and is subject to a gravitational collapse due to a  financial black hole.

I would elaborate and picture the economic model in geometric terms of universal macroeconomics, i.e. a circle within a square. Central Bank and the SE of any state are the gravitational monetary bodies in the center of the circle of thereby attracted  economy, and distribute financial energy – the money mass and securitized wealth within the boundaries of given economic universe, whose revolving circle represents the circulation of capital. The “square” of the GDP, cornering the circle of the economy forms four corners – fields of the given financial space, representing respectively the banks, the RE market, consumption and production.

This represents my Unified Field Theory in Economics, as per Einstein’s theory in Physics, applicable to macroeconomics where accordingly monetary forces between the objects of  economy are not transmitted directly between them, but instead go through intermediary financial fields whose  interactions should be unified  (from strongest to weakest) to prevent the crisis of economy.

To substantiate: when too much monies are pumped into that system as in USA prior to the crisis, the ill fetched economy expands and depresses said fields – cornered banks, RE market, consumers and companies,  constituting the depression with corporate bankruptcies where macroeconomics enter into the conflict with the microeconomics (strongest vs. weakest). To rebound, the economy must contract to relieve the tension from said affected segments of the economy and that had happened recently in USA, proving my assumption.

 Here I also introduce the terms of the “spot” money, “intangible” money with delayed transaction and repayment, and “remote” money, the discrepancies in which had led to enormous consumers’ debt and credit crunch in USA. The matter is that the US economy and financial market were erroneously oriented toward assumed  wealth of the consumers, i.e.,  their unsecured credit cards and loans (intangible money with delayed transaction and repayment), but the actual wealth of the consumer is the real money in his pocket (spot money) and remote money in his bank saving account, so if the US credit report companies and lenders would have had checked and calculated the actual cash status of the consumers/debtors using my money terms above prior to issuing  a mortgage or a loan, the monetary and economic crisis in USA could have been avoided.

It means that apart from the usual state and corporate credit rating, the new gross consumer credit rating (GCCR) should be introduced and used to constitute the essential part of the advanced modern macroeconomics, and that is particularly applicable to REITs, Fannie and Freddie in USA. Here, my term of the General Growth Personal Income (GGPI) should be introduced (as previously applied to RE properties), and calculated by the FED or any Central Bank via IRS and Tax Authorities to keep the economy in check and prevent any crisis.

Nota bene: the problem of common macroeconomics is that it is not based on the Rule of Golden Section and the Fibonacci sequence, albeit all universal systems from the human body, plants and up to the universe are based and develop on this very same principle. To elaborate, I would define the monetary correlation between various states and economic systems in the  following approximate ratio, applying Fibonacci figures: USA to the EU as 1:2, USA – UK as 2:3, to China, Japan, India, Mexico respectively as 3:5, 5:8, 8:13, 13: 21, and so on, showing the dilution of capital, having in mind the relevant buying potential of the consumers  which is low in China and India,  in relation to  the billions of people in said states.

The expanding global economy also reflects the geometry of the Fibonacci spiral that approximates the golden spiral of the universal macroeconomics and globalization based on irrational constant of economic dynamics.

This is all because the GDP based common economy is assumed to be closed, no imports or exports occur.

So my opinion  is that any economy should be based  on  the financial pillars consolidated under one roof, i.e., the real estate market, the stock exchange and the gold trade should constitute a uniform, self-containing system, as the project developed by me, namely the Alternative Int. Stock Exchange, to include the Real Estate SE  and the Gold SE, constituting my Integrated Macroeconomic Theory.

I suggest therefore that apart from the GDP, modern economy should be linked to the Gross Foreign Product  (GFP), as termed by me, including foreign revenues of domestic companies and the offshore assets. This implies the repatriation and reinvestment of the foreign gained income and fled capital as the amortization of the domestic corporate and private assets that constitute thereby  the Cumulative Gain Product (СGP), a term  formulated by me. Said new measure  can mitigate the domestic economic crisis and attract foreign capital due to adjusted financial parameters and upgraded credit rating of the given state.

In re: Concerning the collapse of major U.S. and EU investment banks, with heavy losses at the NYSE,  Russian, EU and Asian stock exchanges and monetary systems and to mitigate the economic and financial situation, I have devised the  project  of the innovative Alternative  Int. Stock Exchange  (AISE), to be established in Jerusalem, to include the Real Estate Stock Exchange and the Gold Exchange to secure investors’ assets and gains. Said project is based on my previous project and bylaws of the Tel Aviv Alternative Stock Exchange solicited by the Israeli Finance Ministry.

Said uniquely integrated three-tier financial system would attract large capital due to innovative self-compensating triple index which is not entirely GDP oriented, as the world economies are based  erroneously upon, leading to collapses, so the Israeli economic and financial system would thereby be based on our introduced GFP as well, thus securing the stability of capital and market and bringing the economy out of recession.

Reprinted with kindly permission of Solomon Budnik. (C) 2009 by Solomon Budnik. All Rights Reserved.


G-20-Finance Ministers Meeting

March 16, 2009

News reports indicate a meeting of finance ministers from the G-20 countries, laying the groundwork for a major April 2nd, 2009 heads-of-state summit addressing the financial crisis, produced agreement in several areas.

Australia’s representative at the meetings said: “Everybody agreed: It’s fiscal stimulus plus. We’ve got to do something about the flow of credit in the financial system; we’ve got to reform our international financial institutions.”

Reportedly the delegates reached general agreement on the need both to boost International Monetary Fund (IMF) resources in the short-term and to reshape the fund in the longer term, including a timetable to increase the voting rights of emerging economies.

Reuters reports the group also agreed to boost funding to the Asian Development Bank (ADB) by $100 billion, bringing the bank’s war chest to $150 billion total.


Keynes and the triumph of hope over economics

February 27, 2009

keynes

In a Financial Times op-ed, Benn Steil, author of Money, Markets, and Sovereignty, satirizes the tendency of economists to cite John Maynard Keynes in support of dramatic fiscal interventions where cold analysis should give us pause.

“Citing Keynes gives us special licence to talk economics without using any. To paraphrase the lawyers’ dictum, when the facts are on our side, we pound the facts; when theory is on our side, we pound theory; and when neither the facts nor theory are on our side, we pound Keynes – and to great effect.

Keynes, not coincidentally, had nothing to say about the proper components of fiscal stimulus. This allows him to be cited with great effect by both paternal progressives (who favour government spending) and caring conservatives (who favour middle-class tax cuts).”

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Die neue Einsamkeit des Josef Ackermann

October 26, 2008

Die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung berichtet über die neueste Hetz- und Medienkampagne gegen den eigentlich ganz vernünftigen und erfolgreichen (nicht der Tod, sondern der Neid ist ein Meister aus Deutschland, um den Spruch von Paul Celan aktueller zu machen) Deutsche Bank-Chef Josef Ackermann, der in seiner Wortwahl über Staatskapitalismus sich nur treu geblieben ist.

Vermutlich versuchen Politiker (die in Aufsichtsgremien von Banken sitzen, und von dem Ernst der Lage wussten) und Mitläufer (sprich Bänker) vom eigenen Versagen abzulenken, in dem sie Ackermanns Aussage, die nicht anders als die blanke Wahrheit ist, anprangern, um ihn als Sündenbock für das gereizte Volk zu präsentieren.

“Er ist jetzt wieder ganz allein. Alle dreschen auf ihn ein: härter, grausamer als jemals zuvor. Josef Ackermann, der Schweizer, hat alle Hochs und Tiefs in Deutschland erlebt. Aber so hoch oben wie in den vergangenen Monaten war er noch nie. So tief gefallen wie in der letzten Woche ist er ebenfalls noch nie. Ob er sich davon je wieder erholen wird, ist ziemlich ungewiss.”

Zum Artikel.